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Responsible conduct at all levels is the highest priority for BEGA during the coronavirus crisis. We feel committed to consistent implementation of the action plan that has been introduced to slow the spread of the virus and the lung disease Covid that can develop as a result.

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At the same time, we are maintaining our guaranteed delivery capability and ensuring that you can receive the same BEGA service you normally rely on. Find out more here. About us and "Das gute Licht" For almost seventy years now, BEGA has been developing and producing high-quality luminaires for almost all areas of architecture.

These years have given rise to products whose ideas and trademarks have become generic terms for countless luminaires in the entire industry. We ourselves have created the best preconditions and production processes, which more than satisfy such requirements.

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This particularly applies in the context of planning services, consultations and tendering processes. Accordingly, BEGA gives the user the right to duplicate these materials only for the above-mentioned purposes. Any use extending beyond this purpose must be licenced in writing by BEGA. In particular, it is prohibited to make the materials publicly accessible in any form e. The materials provided for download by BEGA are not intended for use as advertising materials.

They are therefore not suitable for the promotion of our products for the purpose of resale by the user. No usage rights will be granted in this regard. Das gute Licht. Outdoor luminaires Recessed wall luminaires Wall luminaires Recessed ceiling luminaires Ceiling luminaires In-ground luminaires Floodlights Garden luminaires Light design elements Underwater luminaires Bollards Light building elements Pole-top luminaires Connecting pillars Luminaire poles Accessories.

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Indoor luminaires Recessed wall luminaires Wall luminaires Recessed ceiling luminaires Ceiling luminaires Pendant luminaires Table and floor lamps Accessories.We are open again and ready to see your smiling faces again! Here's what to expect on your next visit. Read More. A community of dentists that treat patients like family should be the gold standard. Whether you are looking for a family dentist, teeth cleaning, or a team with decades of experience in cosmetic, pediatric, or reconstructive surgery, you will find a family of committed and dedicated dental professionals at Crabtree Valley Dental that are here for you.

As a prospective dental patient, you have the important mission of finding the best quality care, a caring and enthusiastic team, an office equipped with cutting edge technology, and a place where your well-being is the number one priority. The great news?

You will find all of that here at Crabtree Valley Dental. Want to visit us at our Raleigh, NC location? Book an appointment and come see us and receive the excellent care you deserve.

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Request An Appointment. Yes No, I am a current patient. Emergencies: Call us before AM we will see you the same day - guaranteed! Servants for Your Smile. Welcome to Crabtree Valley Dental A community of dentists that treat patients like family should be the gold standard. Advanced Services and Skills. Cutting Edge Technology. Yes No. Call Today Request An Appointment.An option's price can be influenced by a number of factors that can either help or hurt traders depending on the type of positions they have taken.

These four primary Greek risk measures are known as an option's thetavegadeltaand gamma. Below, we examine each in greater detail. Options contracts are used for hedging a portfolio. That is, the goal is to offset potential unfavorable moves in other investments. Options contracts are also used for speculating on whether an asset's price might rise or fall. In short, a call option gives the holder of the option the right to buy the underlying asset while a put option allows the holder to sell the underlying asset.

Options can be exercised, meaning they can be converted to shares of the underlying asset at a specified price called the strike price. The premium or price of an option is usually based on an option pricing model, like Black-Scholeswhich leads to fluctuations in price. Greeks are usually viewed in conjunction with an option price model to help understand and gauge associated risks.

How much an option's premium, or market value, fluctuates leading up to its expiration is called volatility. Price fluctuations can be caused by any number of factors, including the financial conditions of the company, economic conditions, geopolitical risks, and moves in the overall markets.


Implied volatility represents the market's view of the likelihood that an asset's price will change. Investors use implied volatility, called implied vol, to forecast or anticipate future moves in the security or stock and in the option's price. If volatility is expected to increase, meaning implied volatility is rising, the premium for an option will likely increase as well. There are a few terms that describe whether an option is profitable or unprofitable.

When comparing the strike price to the price of the underlying stock or asset, if the difference results in a profit, that amount is called the intrinsic value. An at-the-money option means that the option's strike price and the underlying asset's price are equal. An in-the-money option means that a profit exists due to the option's strike price being more favorable to the underlying's price.

Conversely, an out-of-the-money OTM option means that no profit exists when comparing the option's strike price to the underlying's price. For example, a call option that's out-of-the-money means the underlying price is less than the strike price.

On the other hand, a put option is OTM when the underlying's price is higher than the strike price. Table 1 below lists the major influences on both a call and put option's price. The plus or minus sign indicates an option's price direction resulting from a change in one of the listed variables. Bear in mind that results will differ depending on whether a trader is long or short. Writers are sellers of options. When a writer sells a call option, the writer doesn't want the stock price to rise above the strike because the seller would exercise the option if it does.

In other words, if the stock's price rose high enough, the seller would have to sell shares to the option holder at the strike price when the market price was higher. Sellers of options get paid a premium to help compensate for the risk of having their options exercised against them. Selling options is also called shorting. Note that a decrease in implied volatility, reduced time to expiration, and a fall in the price of the underlying security will benefit the short call holder.

At the same time, an increase in volatility, a greater time remaining on the option, and a rise in the underlying will benefit the long call holder. Interest rates play a negligible role in a position during the life of most option trades.

However, a lesser-known Greek, rhomeasures the impact of changes in interest rates on an option's price. Delta is a measure of the change in an option's price that is, the premium of an option resulting from a change in the underlying security.

The value of delta ranges from to 0 for puts and 0 to for calls If the price of the underlying asset falls, the call premium will also decline, provided all other things remain constant. A good way to visualize delta is to think of a race track.

The tires represent the delta, and the gas pedal represents the underlying price. Low delta options are like race cars with economy tires.In mathematical financethe Greeks are the quantities representing the sensitivity of the price of derivatives such as options to a change in underlying parameters on which the value of an instrument or portfolio of financial instruments is dependent. The name is used because the most common of these sensitivities are denoted by Greek letters as are some other finance measures.

Collectively these have also been called the risk sensitivities[1] risk measures [2] : or hedge parameters. The Greeks are vital tools in risk management. Each Greek measures the sensitivity of the value of a portfolio to a small change in a given underlying parameter, so that component risks may be treated in isolation, and the portfolio rebalanced accordingly to achieve a desired exposure; see for example delta hedging.

The Greeks in the Black—Scholes model are relatively easy to calculate, a desirable property of financial modelsand are very useful for derivatives traders, especially those who seek to hedge their portfolios from adverse changes in market conditions. For this reason, those Greeks which are particularly useful for hedging—such as delta, theta, and vega—are well-defined for measuring changes in Price, Time and Volatility.

Although rho is a primary input into the Black—Scholes model, the overall impact on the value of an option corresponding to changes in the risk-free interest rate is generally insignificant and therefore higher-order derivatives involving the risk-free interest rate are not common. The most common of the Greeks are the first order derivatives: deltavegatheta and rho as well as gammaa second-order derivative of the value function. The remaining sensitivities in this list are common enough that they have common names, but this list is by no means exhaustive.

The use of Greek letter names is presumably by extension from the common finance terms alpha and betaand the use of sigma the standard deviation of logarithmic returns and tau time to expiry in the Black—Scholes option pricing model. Several names such as 'vega' and 'zomma' are invented, but sound similar to Greek letters. The names 'color' and 'charm' presumably derive from the use of these terms for exotic properties of quarks in particle physics.

For a vanilla option, delta will be a number between 0. The difference between the delta of a call and the delta of a put at the same strike is equal to one. See the formulas below. These numbers are commonly presented as a percentage of the total number of shares represented by the option contract s.

This is convenient because the option will instantaneously behave like the number of shares indicated by the delta. For example, if a portfolio of American call options on XYZ each have a delta of 0. The sign and percentage are often dropped — the sign is implicit in the option type negative for put, positive for call and the percentage is understood.

Delta is always positive for long calls and negative for long puts unless they are zero. The total delta of a complex portfolio of positions on the same underlying asset can be calculated by simply taking the sum of the deltas for each individual position — delta of a portfolio is linear in the constituents. Since the delta of underlying asset is always 1. This portfolio will then retain its total value regardless of which direction the price of XYZ moves. Albeit for only small movements of the underlying, a short amount of time and not-withstanding changes in other market conditions such as volatility and the rate of return for a risk-free investment.

The absolute value of Delta is close to, but not identical with, the percent moneyness of an option, i.

Greeks (finance)

For example, if an out-of-the-money call option has a delta of 0. At-the-money calls and puts have a delta of approximately 0. The actual probability of an option finishing in the money is its dual deltawhich is the first derivative of option price with respect to strike. Given a European call and put option for the same underlying, strike price and time to maturity, and with no dividend yield, the sum of the absolute values of the delta of each option will be 1 — more precisely, the delta of the call positive minus the delta of the put negative equals 1.

This is due to put—call parity : a long call plus a short put a call minus a put replicates a forward, which has delta equal to 1. If the value of delta for an option is known, one can calculate the value of the delta of the option of the same strike price, underlying and maturity but opposite right by subtracting 1 from a known call delta or adding 1 to a known put delta.

For example, if the delta of a call is 0. Vega [4] measures sensitivity to volatility. Vega is the derivative of the option value with respect to the volatility of the underlying asset. Vega is not the name of any Greek letter. Presumably the name vega was adopted because the Greek letter nu looked like a Latin veeand vega was derived from vee by analogy with how betaetaand theta are pronounced in American English. Vega is typically expressed as the amount of money per underlying share that the option's value will gain or lose as volatility rises or falls by 1 percentage point.

All options both calls and puts will gain value with rising volatility.Vega is the brightest star in the northern constellation of Lyra. This star is relatively close at only 25 light-years from the Sunand, together with Arcturus and Siriusone of the most luminous stars in the Sun's neighborhood. It is the fifth-brightest star in the night skyand the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphereafter Arcturus.

Vega has been extensively studied by astronomers, leading it to be termed "arguably the next most important star in the sky after the Sun". Vega has functioned as the baseline for calibrating the photometric brightness scale and was one of the stars used to define the zero point for the UBV photometric system.

Vega is only about a tenth of the age of the Sun, but since it is 2. Vega has an unusually low abundance of the elements with a higher atomic number than that of helium. This causes the equator to bulge outward due to centrifugal effects, and, as a result, there is a variation of temperature across the star's photosphere that reaches a maximum at the poles.

From Earth, Vega is observed from the direction of one of these poles. Based on an observed excess emission of infrared radiation, Vega appears to have a circumstellar disk of dust. This dust is likely to be the result of collisions between objects in an orbiting debris diskwhich is analogous to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System.

Vega can often be seen near the zenith in the mid-northern latitudes during the evening in the Northern Hemisphere summer. Around July 1, Vega reaches midnight culmination when it crosses the meridian at that time.

Each night the positions of the stars appear to change as the Earth rotates. However, when a star is located along the Earth's axis of rotation, it will remain in the same position and thus is called a pole star. The direction of the Earth's axis of rotation gradually changes over time in a process known as the precession of the equinoxes.

At present the pole star is Polarisbut around 12, BC the pole was pointed only five degrees away from Vega. Through precession, the pole will again pass near Vega around AD 14, This star lies at a vertex of a widely spaced asterism called the Summer Trianglewhich consists of Vega plus the two first-magnitude stars Altairin Aquilaand Deneb in Cygnus.

The Summer Triangle is recognizable in the northern skies for there are few other bright stars in its vicinity. Astrophotographythe photography of celestial objects, began in when John William Draper took an image of the Moon using the daguerreotype process. On July 17,Vega became the first star other than the Sun to be photographed, when it was imaged by William Bond and John Adams Whipple at the Harvard College Observatoryalso with a daguerreotype.

These were later identified as lines from the Hydrogen Balmer series. The distance to Vega can be determined by measuring its parallax shift against the background stars as the Earth orbits the Sun. The first person to publish a star's parallax was Friedrich G.

This change cast further doubt on Struve's data. Thus most astronomers at the time, including Struve, credited Bessel with the first published parallax result. However, Struve's initial result was actually close to the currently accepted value of 0. The brightness of a star, as seen from Earth, is measured with a standardized, logarithmic scale.

This apparent magnitude is a numerical value that decreases in value with increasing brightness of the star. To standardize the magnitude scale, astronomers chose Vega to represent magnitude zero at all wavelengths. Thus, for many years, Vega was used as a baseline for the calibration of absolute photometric brightness scales. This approach is more convenient for astronomers, since Vega is not always available for calibration and varies in brightness.

The UBV photometric system measures the magnitude of stars through ultravioletblue, and yellow filters, producing UBand V values, respectively.Learn more. To Applications Warehouses and Industrial Tents. To Products Warehouses and Industrial Tents. To Applications Rapid Deployment Systems. To Products Rapid Deployment Systems. Contact Contact Form. Here you will find all the information about our event tents, storage marquees, exhibition halls, containers, mobile room modules and fast-construction room systems.

Our products are used for a wide range of purposes. For instance, as event and fair marquees, administrative buildings, storage, exhibition and production halls, workshops, airport terminals, hangars, mobile hospitals, field camps and many more. Why Losberger De Boer? Tents as temporary support facilities for hospitals. Do not enquire about a hall — tells us its intended use.

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